Building on the importance of the adverse consequences from traumatic experiences in childhood, Cate Bailey et al. reviewed existing literature on trauma-informed approaches examining whether or not empirical evidence on the effects of the model exists in alternative care services.
Although assessing these effects turned challenging, the study suggests that adopting trauma-informed care models bear significance as children may experience some positive outcomes. Despite data collection happened in the context of the United States, the findings importantly point on the pressing need for future research on the topic - the empirical evidence was found low.
Published by Health and Social Care in the Community journal, the analysis further indicates three models of trauma-informed care for children in out-of-home settings, summarized below.
- Attachment Regulation and Competency framework: working on healthy relationships with care-givers and families; improving children`s skills in managing emotions; increasing self-understanding of trauma in children. Most amount of evidence collected.
- Children and residential experiences programme: six core principles, namely 'relationship-based, trauma-informed, developmentally focused, family involved, competence centred and ecologically oriented'. Least amount of evidence collected.
- The sanctuary model (low level of evidence): adjusting social services to complex needs of children with traumatic experiences. The model is informed by the psychobiology of trauma; actively creating non-violent environments; social learning principles; and understanding complex system change. Low amount of evidence collected.