This study explores the mechanisms of three forms of child trafficking in Hungary – begging, pickpocketing and sexual exploitation of children – by focusing on Roma victims. It presents available statistical data on human trafficking and sheds light on some of the major difficulties of data collection regarding human trafficking and child trafficking in particular. It gives an overview of the anti-human trafficking and anti-child trafficking policy frameworks, and it tries to reveal what factors lead to victimisation and how recruitment and exploitation of children actually take place. The study then looks into how the identification of victims, the referral mechanism, and the victim assistance systems all work. Finally, it identifies shortcomings in the criminal processes and the judicial system that undermine effective countering of child trafficking.