This report makes the case for redirecting the response to hiv and aids to address children’s needs more effectively. Drawing on the best body of evidence yet assembled on children affected by aids, it shows where existing approaches have gone off track and what should now be done, how, and by whom. The report summarizes the evidence from two years of research and analysis by the Joint Learning Initiative on Children and hiv/aids (jlica). jlica is an independent, time-limited alliance of researchers, implementers, activists, policymakers, and people living with hiv. Launched in October 2006, it includes some 50 core participants from a dozen countries, linked to many more stakeholders and reviewers around the world.