In the present study the ERRC monitored the State response in 44 of the most violent anti- Roma attacks reported to police in the Czech Republic (14 cases), Hungary (22 cases) and Slovakia (8 cases). The individual cases presented in this study were defined on the basis of initial reporting on an incident by media and NGO sources. During ERRC follow-up with police, prosecutors and courts, information indicating multiple perpetrators or in some cases even possibly multiple incidents came to light. This information is included in the description of individual case follow-up. The information presented in this study represents the results of the investigation and prosecution of crimes against Roma: it does not aim to assess the quality of these actions as such. A number of shortcomings in the State response to violence against Roma are apparent.