The Child Labour Report 2017 argues that without a comprehensive and contextualised understanding of child labour, without a close view to newly emerging dynamics and phenomens, policies and programmes aimed at the abolition of its worst forms risk falling short of achieving their objectives. The study links child labour to environmental conditions, both as root causes of child labour or exacerbating factors of existing root causes and as a background to children’s working “environment”. By shedding light on the two areas of concern – child labour and the environment – Terre des Hommes hopes to inspire debate on the structural but often unnoticed factors that undermine the realization of children’s rights. Environmental degradation is likely to increase over the next decades, improving our understanding of its adverse effects on children’s rights, including in the area of child labour. Currently there is very limited available data and the small amount of research carried out on the issue. This report responds to this difficulty by taking a qualitative and illustrative approach. It includes case studies from five countries to highlight the various dimensions that characterise the link between child labour and the environment. These are embedded in a wider analysis of environmental drivers and their impact on child labour, including an exploration of States’ and other actors’ duties in the area as well as good practices of prevention and protection.