The past decade has held high hopes for reducing the rate of new HIV infections among young people. In 2000, world leaders adopted the Millennium Declaration, affirming their collective responsibility to ensure equitable development for all people, especially children and the most vulnerable, in the 21st century. The Declaration was translated into action by eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the sixth of which commits the global community to using every resource possible to halt and reverse the spread of HIV. Building on that commitment, at the UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV and AIDS in 2001, the world made a promise to reduce the prevalence of HIV in young people globally by 25 per cent by the end of 2010 and to increase young people’s access to essential prevention information, skills and services so as to reach 95 per cent of those in need by the same date. The first Opportunity in Crisis report, published in 2002, put forward 10 steps to help move countries closer to their prevention goals. Since then, some countries have experienced gains in knowledge and positive changes in the sexual behaviour of their young people, and some countries have achieved declines in HIV prevalence and incidence. Many of these achievements can be attributed to the efforts of young people and their schools, families, health workers and communities, as well as to the efforts of some political leaders. But neither the efforts made nor the progress achieved so far have been sufficient.