This literature review by Promundo and CARE in the context of the Young Men Initiative (YMI) provides an overview of studies and surveys conducted in Southeastern Europe related to notions of masculinity and problems faced by young men and adolescent boys in this region. It looks at the effects of conflict on ideas of "Balkan" masculinity and analyzes data on employment issues, substance abuse, violence, and sexual and reproductive health in the context of young men and boys. In particular, the review finds evidence of rigid and inequitable gender norms in the context of attitudes towards violence, excessive alcohol use, risky sexual behaviour and homophobia. In addition, young men and adolescent boys lack support when it comes to mental health problems as well as adequate education and resources on sexual and reproductive health. There are examples of successful interventions through government and NGO programmes, though more research is needed on the extent of the problems and how to combat them.